Construction of the questionnaire involved adapting questions from a review of existing literature that had looked at the reasons behind children’s purchases from fast food takeaway outlets.3 , 4 , 15 , 16 Participants were asked to self-report their gender, age, date of birth and ethnicity. 17 Free school meal entitlement was used as a proxy measure of deprivation in our survey, and it is also commonly used to investigate schoolchildren families’ income level.3 , 18 Participants were also asked how often they would purchase food/drinks from fast food takeaway outlet over a week period. Previous studies have also used this type of question to define frequency of fast food consumption.3 , 4 Participants were asked to indicate what portion size of chips they would normally purchase. Participants were asked to rank their three most popular types of beverages they would normally purchase. Participants were also asked to report their average level of physical activity during weekends and weekdays on the same questionnaire. Response options include from <2 h, 2–5 h and 5 h or more per day.
Good pilot examination of the fresh new questionnaire are completed with a small shot off students (n=30) old a dozen–13 ages. https://datingranking.net/it/app-di-incontri/ Guidance from the airplane pilot data provided rewording the questions to be most readily useful understood also to restrict exactly how many unlock-concluded issues. New questionnaire are delivered in universities ranging from and you can try finished by the 193 college students. The newest survey was created to become mind-administered. Coached look assistants was in fact accessible to help children just who expected help having wisdom otherwise understanding all the questions.
Anthropometric measurements was indeed built-up of the taught research personnel. Top is actually counted to your nearest millimetre having fun with SECA Leicester cellular phone height measure (stadiometer). Every people was in fact taught to eradicate its sneakers before their height is taken and also to align the direct throughout the Frankfurt airplanes.19 Pounds was counted with the nearest 0.step one kilogram playing with calibrated Pounds People Simple See Precision electronic balances (model: 8961U). Users was indeed taught to eradicate its footwear and you may outerwear, that’s, outside jacket, and remain inside their consistent prior to they certainly were weighed. Self-stated proportions was omitted from the research investigation put because they had been considered unsound. Bmi (BMI) are extracted from mentioned peak and you can weight of one’s children and determined utilizing the following formulae: Body mass index kg/meters dos = lbs (kg)/height2 (metres). Bmi percentile getting years and you may sex based on the validated Uk 1990 source studies maps are determined, taking into account day of delivery and time out of dimension.20–23 Percentile between 85th and you may 95th percentile are recognized as heavy and you can ?95th percentile are identified as over weight.24 , twenty five One hundred and you may twenty-one schoolchildren had completed analysis to own computation regarding Bmi percentile to have ages and you may intercourse.
Investigation had been analysed using SPSS V. (SPSS Inc.). Show revealed are either showed given that function ± SD, median (range) or frequencies (percentages). Statistical value is taken in the event the p really worth try ?0.05. Categorical parameters was opposed with the ? dos make sure continuing parameters utilising the Kruskal–Wallis sample.
The mean respondent age was 12.8 (range 11–14) years old and 56% of the respondents were male (table 1). The ethnic background of the study population was mainly Asians (48.3%) and Black/African-Carribeans (19.4%), reflecting the sampling region. Majority of the sampled population (61%) was entitled to free school meals. About one in three respondents (30.6%) was classified as being overweight or obese. Thirty-two per cent of the males were classified as being overweight or obese as compared with 29% of the females. About half of the sampled population (54%) reported that they usually purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets more than two to three times a week. About half of the schoolchildren (48%) would spend 2 per visit.